Unraveling the hyperlinks between weight loss plan, intestine well being and immunity

Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-31761-y” width=”800″ height=”530″/>

A model of a high-protein diet in inducing a sIgA response. A high-protein diet stimulates the production of succinate by the gut microbiota. High levels of luminal succinate induce stress on intestinal bacterial cells and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which promote vesicle formation and increase the production of extracellular vesicles by the microbiota. Microbiota-derived extracellular vesicles can directly activate TLR4 expressed in the intestinal epithelium, activating downstream NFκB signaling, leading to increased expression of APRIL, CCL28, and PIGR, which promote a T cell-independent sIgA response. Increased TLR4 signaling also enhances the pro-inflammatory response leading to more severe DSS-induced colitis. Elevated intestinal succinate levels observed in IBD patients may contribute to disease pathology by promoting microbiota-derived extracellular vesicle production and the TLR4/NFκB signaling pathway. Credit: Nature communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-31761-y

A preclinical study from the University of Sydney has shown that a high-protein diet can alter the gut microbiota and trigger an immune response. The researchers say the study is a step closer to understanding how diet affects gut health and immunity.

“Our work focuses on how the gut microbiota — the trillions of bacteria that live in the gut — affects the immune system,” said Laurence Macia, an assistant professor at the university’s Charles Perkins Center and School of Medicine and Health.

“Our ultimate goal is to understand how we can manipulate bacteria to improve health, and we know that one of the easiest ways to change the microbiota is to change the diet.”

However, researchers have traditionally focused on the role of dietary fiber in maintaining a healthy gut.

In this first-of-its-kind study, published in Nature communicationsA team at the Charles Perkins Center used sophisticated modeling to study the effects of 10 diets with different macronutrients—protein, fat, and carbohydrates—in mice.

They discovered that a high protein diet changed the composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota.

The mice were fed a high protein diet diet increased their production of bacterial extracellular vesicles, complex cargoes that contain bacterial information such as DNA and proteins. Later, the body saw this activity as a threat and triggered a sequence of events immune cells traveled to the intestinal wall.

“Here we found that proteins had a huge effect intestinal microbiota and it wasn’t so much about the type of bacteria there as the type of activity. “Essentially, we discovered a new protein-mediated relationship between gut bacteria and the host,” said Associate Professor Macia.

While it’s too early to say whether this research can be applied to humans, the researchers say that immune system activation can be good or bad.

“When you increase antibody levels in the gut, you can see a strong defense against potential pathogens like salmonella, but the downside is activated Immune system may mean you are at increased risk for colitis inflammatory bowel diseaseor autoimmune diseases such as Crohn’s disease,” said lead author and Ph.D. student Jian Tan.

The results appear to be consistent with the population impact of modern diets, with lower rates of gastrointestinal infections but higher rates of chronic disease in the Western world.

This advancement in knowledge is made possible by the merging of academic disciplines for which the Charles Perkins Center is well known.

The study used a geometric feeding system developed by Professor Stephen Simpson and Professor David Raubenheimer, which was developed to study ecology.

“The Nutrient Geometry framework allows us to map together foods, meals, diets and eating patterns based on their nutrient composition, helping researchers to observe otherwise overlooked links between certain diets, health and disease,” Professor Simpson said. , academic director of the Charles Perkins Center.

“This is the first time this model has been applied to immunology, and it could only happen here at the Charles Perkins Center. We’re excited about what’s next,” Associate Professor Macia said.


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More information:
Jian Tan et al., Dietary protein enhances T-cell-independent sIgA production by altering gut microbiota-derived extracellular vesicles, Nature communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-31761-y

Quote: Exposing the Connections between Diet, Gut Health and Immunity (3 Aug 2022) Retrieved 2022 August 3 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-08-uncovering-links-diet-gut-health.html

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